Geologist, James Edward Kamis presents a fascinating new theory as how volcanic activity and other geothermal impacts play a previously ill-considered role on earth's climate. Below, the concept of “Plate Climatology”* is proposed.
The Sun, quite obviously, is the first order driver of Earth’s climate, but a much neglected second order driver can contribute significantly to short term variations. The theory proposed herein is that periods of active Earth tectonism can be correlated to periods of active climate change and climate related events.
Increased global tectonic activity equates to more faulting and crustal plate movement which leads to more global heat release from faults, fractures and volcanoes that are more active.
Altered heat input equates to climate change.
This effect has been largely hidden from scientific investigation because the primary heat release is within underexplored / monitored deep ocean regions; deep ocean rifts (Plate pull-apart boundaries), fumaroles, traverse faults, and other faults . Ocean temperatures, densities, and chemical compositions are altered by this varying tectonic activity. The “Altered Oceans” then influence or drive climate changes and climate related events.
Many connections between Geology / Climate are explored and explained in this theory. The aim of publishing this theory is to accomplish two objectives:
1.) Raise awareness of the strong connection between Geology and Climate and:
2.) Act as a catalyst for future research.
This paper is especially germane in light of the current discussion concerning man-made global warming, also referred to as man-made climate change and the ongoing 18 year global warming pause.
1. General Theory of Plate Climatology
The theory proposed herein provides a platform to join what are now several independently researched branches of science; Geology, Climatology and Meteorology. Geological phenomena are thought of as unrelated and unimportant to climate, especially modern day climate. This notion is likely to be proven incorrect. Many current / modern weather phenomenon are directly tied to current geological events; local continental glacial melting, local droughts, local warming ocean, La Nina, and El Nino to name a few.
The proposed Plate Climatology theory is exactly that, a theory and not a proven fact, yet deserves strong consideration amongst all scientists involved in the discussions surrounding current climate events.
2. Sub-Ocean Tectonism, Volcanism, Heat Flow, and Fluid Expulsion
This theory proposes that sub-oceanic tectonism, volcanism, heat flow, and fluid expulsion have a strong influence on worldwide climates, as exemplified by the El Niño and La Niña climate phenomenons.
These phenomenons originate as deep ocean temperature anomalies in the western Pacific and as they migrate east, they become progressively shallower. This can be interpreted as strong evidence that the control / origin of these phenomena is heat and chemical bearing fluids from deep-sea volcanoes, vents, faults, and fractures. In essence, increased sub-oceanic crustal plate movement, or increased sub-oceanic volcanism in the western Pacific leads to release of large amounts of heat and fluids. El Nino’s and La Nina’s are born, migrate east and directly affect the climate of the North American continent.
Another specific example is the most recent California drought. Meteorologists have concluded that an unusually persistent high pressure ridge in the Gulf of Alaska has affected North American storm tracks. Storms with much needed rain have by-passed California. It is herewith theorized that this unusually persistent high pressure ridge is related to a geological phenomenon, specifically the increased volcanic activity associated with the Pacific Plate Subduction Zone. This increased activity is both oceanic and continental in nature, and has altered / locked oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the northern Gulf of Alaska.
In fact, recently published data indicates that the water in the Gulf of Alaska is warmer than surrounding areas. Additionally, unusual fish species have been noted in the Gulf. They are likely present in response to heating of the overall ocean column… again likely related to geological / deep sea vent heating. This fits well with the proposed theory.
In general there is little or no monitoring of most of the heat and fluid releases in any of the deep oceans, so the effect of deep ocean heat releases has been larger hidden / ignored. Additionally, some have argued that even if this heat and fluid release exists, it stays trapped in the deep ocean. Yet many forces act to vertically mix the ocean water column - tsunamis, volcanic eruptions (small and large), density flows, and sub-oceanic vortexes.
From a geologist’s point of view, it has been obvious for a long time that Sub-Ocean Tectonism, Volcanism, Heat Flow, and Fluid Expulsion are a major driver of Climate.
3. Continental Tectonism, Volcanism, and Heat Flow
Continental tectonism, volcanism, and heat flow have a moderate influence on worldwide climate, however locally the effect can be strong. A good example is the connection / influence of tectonically generated heat release beneath Continental Glacial Ice Masses. Examples include; Mount Kilimanjaro / East African Rift, Greenland / Mid-Atlantic Rift, Antarctic Ice Masses / Western and Eastern Antarctic Continental Heat Flow. This phenomenon may also be happening in southern Greenland.
For years the scientific establishment has been unable to explain why specific western Antarctic glaciers were retreating / melting at unusually high rates relative to the majority of other Antarctic glaciers. Nearly ten years ago the author started arguing that the unusual retreat of these local glaciers was related to local geological fault heat. Recently scientists have indeed measured increased heat flow in these local areas.
I also believe that continental land based heat and fluid release along fault zones can have a limited effect on local weather patterns. Such as the active volcanoes along the Cascade Range, which emit varying amounts of; heat, particulate matter, and chemicals into the local atmosphere. We are all very aware of the weather and climatological effect large scale eruptions have on local and worldwide weather. However to date no one has considered that lesser volcanic events can have an influence on local weather patterns. This is very likely happening.
4. The Relationship between Major Worldwide Deep Ocean Currents and Tectonism / Volcanism
Major worldwide deep ocean currents, such as the Gulf Stream, are affected by variations in sub-sea tectonism, volcanism, heat flow, and fluid release.
Major shifts in deep ocean currents, such as the Gulf Stream, have long been thought to be associated exclusively with changes in continental surface water discharge. Although this obviously has some influence, the theory proposed here suggests that the major reason these currents shift, often suddenly, is Plate Tectonism. Significant periods of Crustal Plate movement can lead to major heat and ocean density changes. This in turn leads to changes in deep sea currents.
Additionally this tectonism can lead to increased numbers of Tsunami’s which act to rapidly mix the ocean’s water column vertically. Once this mixing happens, it can easily lead to, or add to, the shifting of major deep ocean currents.
Scientists have long noticed that altering deep ocean currents can lead to major climate changes. My theory suggests that more often than not these major changes are related geological phenomenon.
5. The Relationship of Oceanic Plankton Levels and Ocean CO2 Concentrations with Deep Ocean Tectonics / Volcanism
Worldwide deep ocean tectonic activity and associated heat and fluid release have a much greater effect on plankton levels and ocean CO2 concentrations than previously thought.
Chemosynthesis is a fascinating new branch of biology. It is now well known that deep ocean vents have biologic communities associated with them. These vents release significant amounts of heat and chemicals which supply food for numerous biological communities. The number of vents and their overall effect on the ocean is largely unknown, save a few isolated areas. Ongoing research shows that there is likely significantly more heat and chemical release than previously thought. The implications of Chemosynthesis have not been fully appreciated. However, it is in essence a confirmation that geologically driven deep ocean geological events are likely to be significant.
Given that deep ocean chemosynthesis exists, it is a logical next step to theorize that increased heat anomalies in the oceans also have an effect / alter shallow plankton blooms. More heat leads to more plankton, more CO2 consumption, and more oxygen generation.
Increased ocean heat may also lead increased ability to absorb CO2.
The atmospheric implications are obvious; more oxygen and less CO2 lead to warming changes that are indirectly related to deep ocean geological events.
The overall theory contends that periods of active Earth tectonics and volcanism can be correlated to periods of active climate change and climate related events. To describe this new theory, the term “Plate Climatology” is proposed.
This short paper will hopefully spawn a new era of joint research between geologists, climatologists, and meteorologists. The time is long overdue for scientists to join forces in an effort to more accurately describe what drives climate over and above the Sun.
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
*Theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might for example include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern use it has taken on several different related meanings. A theory is not the same as a hypothesis. A theory provides an explanatory framework for some observation, and from the assumptions of the explanation follows a number of possible hypotheses that can be tested in order to provide support for, or challenge, the theory. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory
James Edward Kamis is a Geologist and AAPG member of 40 years and has always been fascinated by the probable connection between Geology and Climate. Years of casual research / observation have convinced him that the Earth’s Heat Flow Engine, which drives the outer crustal plates, is also an important second order driver of the Earth’s climate. The term ”Plate Climatology” is coined to describe this connection. (The word Plate from Plate Tectonics)
A doctor claims that he developed a successful drug to combat Ebola with the U.S. Army at Ft. Detrick Maryland but that the research was inexplicably shut down two weeks before the first outbreak of the virus in West Africa.
Richard C. Davis, M.D., a former flight surgeon with the U.S. Navy, told Infowars that he was leading a project to develop a drug called RC-2Beta, which according to Davis works, “at the core of our cells to enhance mitochondrial efficiency and promote gene signaling to stimulate cellular self-repair and pathogen destruction.”
In the fall of 2013, Davis’ company began collaborating with the US Army at their Level 4 bioweapons facility at Ft. Detrick, Maryland to develop the drug, with astounding success.
According to Davis, the drug “Killed four of the world’s deadliest viruses in a dose-dependent fashion. The Army also noted that uninfected cells in the same cultures were untouched by the drug (i.e., it was non-toxic).”
“Everyone was very excited about these results since there has never been a broad-spectrum anti-viral drug that killed so many different viruses without affecting normal (uninfected) cells in this way,” writes Davis.
It really is the sort of news that made me want to weep into my skinny cappuccino and then pour it down the sink. After years of being told, and telling others, that saturated fat clogs your arteries and makes you fat, there is now mounting evidence that eating some saturated fats may actually help you lose weight and be good for the heart.
Earlier this year, for example, a systematic review, funded by the British Heart Foundation and with the rather dry title "Association of dietary, circulating and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk" caused a stir.
Scientists from Oxford, Cambridge and Harvard, amongst others, examined the links between eating saturated fat and heart disease. Despite looking at the results of nearly 80 studies involving more than a half million people they were unable to find convincing evidence that eating saturated fats leads to greater risk of heart disease.
In fact, when they looked at blood results, they found that higher levels of some saturated fats, in particular a type of saturated fat you get in milk and dairy products called margaric acid, were associated with a lower risk of heart disease.
Although there were critics, NHS Choices described this as "an impressively detailed and extensive piece of research, which is likely to prompt further study".
The Epstein–Barr virus and its relatives in the herpesvirus family are known for their longevity. They persist in host tissues for years, causing diseases like mononucleosis, Kaposi's sarcoma and herpes, and are notoriously difficult to kill. University of California, Los Angeles, biophysicist Z. Hong Zhou thinks the secret to herpesviruses' resilience may be a layer of microscopic chain mail.
Zhou and his colleagues examined the outer shells, or capsids, of a primate herpesvirus under an electron microscope and saw a pattern of interlocking protein rings. Those rings form a mesh that can withstand intense pressures and explain why herpesviruses can maintain decades-long infections.
The study, published in the October 7 issue of Structure, marks the first time anyone has been able to bring the herpesvirus structure into focus—literally. Solving the configuration of a viral capsid requires both the ability to discern individual molecules and the ability to see how those molecules fit together in the viral shell.
Herpesviruses are so big that they don't fit within most electron microscopes’ fields of view. Trying to understand their structure by looking at atomic-resolution images is like trying to understand the anatomy of an elephant based on extreme close-ups—easier said than done. Once Zhou's team brought the image into focus, however, they saw a familiar pattern. The interlocking mesh pattern is very similar to the structure other virologists have found in bacteriophages, a family of viruses that infect bacteria, which suggests that herpesviruses and bacteriophages may share a common evolutionary origin. “We never would have seen that connection based on genetic sequences alone,” says Jack Johnson, a virologist at The Scripps Research Institute not involved with the study who first discovered the chain mail pattern in bacteriophages. “This study shows how important it is to actually look at the structure.”
(NaturalNews) The U.S. Centers for Disease Control owns a patent on a particular strain of Ebola known as "EboBun." It's patent No. CA2741523A1 and it was awarded in 2010. You can view it here. (Thanks to Natural News readers who found this and brought it to our attention.)
Patent applicants are clearly described on the patent as including:
The Government Of The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary, Department Of Health & Human Services, Center For Disease Control.
The patent summary says, "The invention provides the isolated human Ebola (hEbola) viruses denoted as Bundibugyo (EboBun) deposited with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ("CDC"; Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America) on November 26, 2007 and accorded an accession number 200706291."
It goes on to state, "The present invention is based upon the isolation and identification of a new human Ebola virus species, EboBun. EboBun was isolated from the patients suffering from hemorrhagic fever in a recent outbreak in Uganda."
It's worth noting, by the way, that EboBun is not the same variant currently believed to be circulating in West Africa. Clearly, the CDC needs to expand its patent portfolio to include more strains, and that may very well be why American Ebola victims have been brought to the United States in the first place. Read more below and decide for yourself...
Harvesting Ebola from victims to file patents
From the patent description on the EboBun virus, we know that the U.S. government:
1) Extracts Ebola viruses from patients.
2) Claims to have "invented" that virus.
3) Files for monopoly patent protection on the virus.
To understand why this is happening, you have to first understand what a patent really is and why it exists. A patent is a government-enforced monopoly that is exclusively granted to persons or organizations. It allows that person or organization to exclusively profit from the "invention" or deny others the ability to exploit the invention for their own profit.
It brings up the obvious question here: Why would the U.S. government claim to have "invented" Ebola and then claim an exclusively monopoly over its ownership?
The region was responsible for 10 percent of all the methane emissions from the natural gas sector in the country, according to a study published yesterday in Geophysical Research Letters. If gas, coal mining and petroleum sectors are included, the San Juan Basin was responsible for 5 percent of the emissions.
The region emitted 0.59 million metric tons of methane every year between 2003 and 2009, the study found. That rate is three times the amount reported in the European Union's greenhouse gas inventory, called EDGAR. It is 1.8 times the reported value in U.S. EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program.
The high emissions were recorded in 2003, prior to the advent of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, a technique used to extract oil and gas from shale reservoirs. But parts of the oil and gas system were leaking even before fracking, said Eric Kort, an assistant professor at the University of Michigan and lead author of the study.
Date: Monday 27 October 2014
Time: 12 for 12:30 pm
Place: The Australian Club, 110 William St, Melbourne
Cost: $110 p.p. (2-course lunch incl. alcohol)
Pre-payment is required:
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Pre-payment replaces the need to rsvp
If you have any queries, please contact Mr Des Moore on (03)9867 1235 or Mr Case Smit on (07)5473 0475.
The deep ocean may not be hiding heat after all, raising new questions about why global warming appears to have slowed in recent years, said the US space agency Monday.
Scientists have noticed that while greenhouse gases have continued to mount in the first part of the 21st century, global average surface air temperatures have stopped rising along with them, said NASA.
Some studies have suggested that heat is being absorbed temporarily by the deep seas, and that this so-called global warming hiatus is a temporary trend.
But latest data from satellite and direct ocean temperature measurements from 2005 to 2013 "found the ocean abyss below 1.24 miles (1,995 meters) has not warmed measurably," NASA said in a statement.
A new report from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) finds that the Antarctic ice cap has exceeded 20 million square kilometers, a freeze that hasn't been seen since 1979 when the agency began to compile records.
"Sea ice surrounding Antarctica reached a new record high extent this year, covering more of the southern oceans than it has since scientists began a long-term satellite record to map sea ice extent in the late 1970s," the NASA website reported on October 7.
NASA went on to say:
Since the late 1970s, the Arctic has lost an average of 20,800 square miles (53,900 square kilometers) of ice a year; the Antarctic has gained an average of 7,300 square miles (18,900 sq km). On Sept. 19 this year, for the first time ever since 1979, Antarctic sea ice extent exceeded 7.72 million square miles (20 million square kilometers), according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. The ice extent stayed above this benchmark extent for several days. The average maximum extent between 1981 and 2010 was 7.23 million square miles (18.72 million square kilometers).
The single-day maximum extent this year was reached on Sept. 20, according to NSIDC data, when the sea ice covered 7.78 million square miles (20.14 million square kilometers). This year's five-day average maximum was reached on Sept. 22, when sea ice covered 7.76 million square miles (20.11 million square kilometers), according to NSIDC.
Hefty German scientist Dr Stefan Hell - and American colleagues Eric Betzig and William Moerner - have been awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their development of super-high-res microscopes: so hi-res, in fact, that they are really nano-scopes.
"Due to their achievements the optical microscope can now peer into the nanoworld," enthuses the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences, conferring the prestigious boffinry gong upon the brainy trio.
The Swedish science judges go on to explain just how the three eminent scientists managed to get past the justifiably presumed limit on optical microscopy, that of half a wavelength of the light frequencies used:
Two separate principles are rewarded. One enables the method stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, developed by Stefan Hell in 2000. Two laser beams are utilized; one stimulates fluorescent molecules to glow, another cancels out all fluorescence except for that in a nanometre-sized volume. Scanning over the sample, nanometre for nanometre, yields an image with a resolution better than Abbe's stipulated limit.
Eric Betzig and William Moerner, working separately, laid the foundation for the second method, single-molecule microscopy. The method relies upon the possibility to turn the fluorescence of individual molecules on and off. Scientists image the same area multiple times, letting just a few interspersed molecules glow each time. Superimposing these images yields a dense super-image resolved at the nanolevel. In 2006 Eric Betzig utilized this method for the first time.
Today, nanoscopy is used world-wide and new knowledge of greatest benefit to mankind is produced on a daily basis.
The existence of such a particle was first predicted in 1937 by Italian physicist Ettore Majorana, who proposed that a particle could exhibit the behavior of both matter and antimatter in such a way that the two cancel each other out and exist in a stable, neutral state.
To test this out the Princeton boffins built a ridged base plate of ultra-pure crystals of lead, and laid down a wire of pure iron one atom wide and three atoms thick on one of the ridges.
The material was then cooled down to -272°C – just about one point above absolute zero – and viewed it using a two-story-tall scanning-tunneling microscope mounted on anti-vibration buffers. Only then were they able to glimpse the elusive particle, sort of.